Ear Anomalies

Other ear anomalies can be treated with similar techniques to Microtia reconstruction to form a normal looking ear.


Cryptotia is a congenital deformity where part of the ear is hidden within the scalp with no normal sulcus behind the ear.

Treatment consists of a series of flaps to create a sulcus and elevate the ear.

Cryptotia: Before
Cryptotia: After

Cryptotia (Before & After)


Lopear, Cupear

Constricted Ears

Constricted ears have all the structures of an ear but lack the size in both height and width. The constriction may be in the middle or upper part of the ear. After careful analysis of the normal ear or a parent’s ear in bilateral cases, a template is made which demonstrates the constriction of the ear and the loss in height and width. Treatment involves expanding the constricted ear to a normal size through use of cartilage grafts from the other ear or rib. The ear may also need to be set back.

Lop ear:
Is a constricted ear where the vertical height and width is reduced in size and results in folding of the scapha.

Cup Ear:
Is a lop ear that is also prominent.

Stahl’s Ear:
Flat helix and scapha with no sulcus and a third crus.

Treatment consists off expanding the height/width of the ear through use of cartilage grafts from the rib or contralateral normal ear.

Stahl's Ear

Stahl's Ear

Acquired Ear Defects

Ear reconstructive techniques can be applied in the setting of trauma, burns and post cancer resection. In these circumstances often only part of the ears contours need to be reconstructed.
We use the classification of Firmin for management of acquired defects. This guides us to use either conchal cartilage or rib cartilage depending upon how many contours need reconstructing. Dr. Jack Zoumaras helped Dr. Firmin edit a book chapter on Ear Reconstruction in Acquired defects whilst a Fellow in Paris.